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File Types:

.PMD, .PMX MMD Models, Characters, Dancers, complex  stages
.PMM A Saved MMD Dance file.
Polygon Movie Maker file
.VMD Motion Files
.VPD Pose Files
.WAV MMD's ONLY audio file format
.X Accessories and Effects
.XF Effects data files associated with a particular .X item/effect
.VSQ Lip-Sync/Mouth flapping file
.BMP Image/Graphic file
.JPG Image/Graphic file
.PNG Image/Graphic file
.GIF Image/Graphic file
.PSD Adobe Photoshop image file
.TIF Image/Graphic file
.VAC Vocaloid Acessory file
.TGA Color/texture files
.DDS DirectX 3-D file
.SPH DirectX Spherical Mapping file
.MQO Metasequoia file

What is a VMD file in MikuMikuDance 7.39? How do I use VPD files? Can I swap VPD files with VMD files in MMD 7.39?A Feature Article by contributor ARIZONA on LearnMMD.com

MMD takes advantage of all sorts of data types ...

A little story, I had recently downloaded an effect called the Sakura Petals Effect and put it into my accessories file with my other effects. I opened up my MMD; loaded my model; and loaded the effect and got an error message stating it wasn’t an .x file. So I looked at the file’s properties and saw that it was a .pmd file. Until then, I had never seen a PMD "effect" (Not that my experience is so vast). So, on a whim, I moved it into my models folder. I went to the same procedures and this time it worked. This same thing happened to me with some stages I have downloaded. A PMD file Loads from the Model Manipulation panel ... even if you consider it to be an "Accessory" or an "Effect". Likewise ... a .x model will only load from the Accessory panel.

MMD takes advantage of all sorts of data types. Many are for showing visual items; others for poses and motions; and only one for music (.wav). 

Specific to our use in MMD:

.vmd - means Vocaloid Motion Data. A motion sequence for a particular set of moves, actions, facial movements, are saved as vmd's. These would be filed in your MOTION Folder.

.vpd - Vocaloid Pose Data- data for a vertical column of registered position diamonds in MMD ... a single frame ... is saved as .vpd file. ex.:Reggie’s Collection of Hand Poses found in “Downloads” section. These would be filed in your POSE Folder.

.pmd and .pmx - are the Polygon Models of our dancers in MMD. These would be filed in your MODELS Folder. (Some of you old-time graphic artists may recognize a PMD file as a product of Adobe Pagemaker. That's a different animal, altogether.)

.pmm - in MikuMikuDance is a saved "dance" file ... linking all elements of your dance ... wav, motions, models, lights, camera, sets, accessories, and etc., into a single location.

.x - is a file extension used for DirectX models, mostly associated with inanimate objects such as stages and props ... but occasionally you may find a model made with .x extension. These would be filed in your ACCESSORY Folder. (PMD Editor let's you add bones to a .x model.)

.xf - used for effects in MME. It is essentially a .x file linked with coding to a .x model to allow the effect to be used. These would be filed in your EFFECTS Folder along with their associated .x models. (There IS NO Effects Folder until you create one. I made my Effects Folder inside of my Accessory Folder so MMD can find it when I use the Accessory Panel to Load an effect.)

.vsq - Vocaloid Sequence motion data used mostly for lip synching. (MMD has a routine allowing this file type to program the lip-flapping motions, but I have never seen such a file in use.)

Specific to images, graphics, and texture/colors within .x and .pmd models:

.bmp - Bit Map Image utilized for clothing, backgrounds, textures and accessories. BMP is an old 8-bit color system using indexed colors ... "loss-less" in that no data compression is used ... large file sizes ... limited to 256 colors in a document.

.jpg - JPEG images, RGB color for our use, yield smaller file sizes using data compression techniques that trade some image loss for smaller file sizes.

.png - Portable Network Graphics, a "loss-less" file compression technique that compresses for small file size yet "decompresses" to yield an image without data loss.

.gif - An early form of a loss-less data compression format using "indexed colors" allowing only a maximum of 256 colors per image. (The "Loss" happens when you convert your RGB image into "indexed color mode" before you save it as a GIF ":o). File sizes can compress to be quite small as you limit the number of allowable colors.

.psd - Adobe Photoshop Document. The proprietary Photoshop file format.

.tif - Image file format using no data compression; resulting in huge file sizes. Your RGB image is saved pixel-by-pixel for a loss-less image file. Often used by "fine-art" digital graphic artists and photographers.

Some other file types you may see ...

.vac stands for Vocaloid Accessory File (.vaf is used by Microsoft for their Vanilyzer project- in case you were wondering) allows you to link accessories like Neko Ears to a specific part of the model, in this case the head.

.tga refers to Targa Graphic Assist in color and texture rendering models and stages.

.dds Direct Draw Surface used in DirectX 3D modeling.

.sph Vocaloid Sphere Mapping file usually associated with .bmp mostly to add a shiny texture to clothes and hair.

.mqo Images and textures created using a program called Metasequoia. It is very similar to Blender and Gimp.

Side note: I have never downloaded a model that had turned white when it was opened. I also don’t have my laptop recognizing Japanese. So I’m working on the theory that the folders in MMD are type specific (at least in Windows 7). I could be wrong; however I did find a solution that works for me. I’m perfectly willing to accept any MMD problem could just as well be attributed to a miss-connection or short between the head sets. Please let me know your experiences.